One of the first popular robots was the Mechanical Turk, a chess-playing machine built by 18th-century inventor Wolfgang von Kempelen. A mannequin attired in Turkish robes and turban sat behind a large cabinet, which had a chessboard atop it. The machine debuted in 1770 at the court of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, and the Turk defeated courtier after courtier with its swift, aggressive style of play, even besting Benjamin Franklin and Napoleon Bonaparte.
However, the Turk wasn’t actually an automaton. Even at the time, people offered theories: the Turk’s small cabinet concealed a child, or perhaps a dwarf, or a chess-playing monkey, or a double leg amputee. But the cabinet was actually cleverly constructed to allow a full-sized adult to fit inside, and to use magnets and strings to control the Turk’s moves.
Source – TheWeek.com
In 1983, German newspaper Stern published an explosive exclusive: Hitler’s diaries. But this was one story that blew up for all the wrong reasons. Within two weeks, the journals were exposed as sophisticated forgeries. It seems that, desperate to prevent a leak and protect their £2.5 million investment, Stern officials had refused to let any German World War II experts inspect the 60 handwritten volumes before they went to press. But soon historical inaccuracies were spotted, and the series was exposed as the creation of antiques dealer and painter Konrad Kujau.
Source – Thehistoryevealed.com
In 1974, six members of an Amityville, New York, family were killed by their youngest son, Butch DeFeo. The following year George and Kathy Lutz and their three children moved into the home, and soon, they claimed, they were supernaturally attacked by a demonic ghost or spirit. They collaborated with novelist Jay Anson, who embellished their tale, and the story was soon adapted into a screenplay for the hit film “The Amityville Horror.” Investigators, skeptical of their claims, were proven correct years later when DeFeo’s lawyer admitted that he and the Lutzes made up the whole thing, and all profited handsomely from the hoax.
Source – livescience.com
The Cardiff Giant was one of the most famous hoaxes in American history. It was a 10-foot-tall (3.0 m) purported “petrified man” uncovered on October 16, 1869, by workers digging a well behind the barn of William C. “Stub” Newell in Cardiff, New York. Both it and an unauthorized copy made by P.T. Barnum are still being displayed.
The giant was the creation of a New York tobacconist named George Hull. Hull, an atheist, decided to create the giant after an argument at a Methodist revival meeting about Genesis 6:4 which stated that there were giants who once lived on Earth.
Newell set up a tent over the giant and charged 25 cents for people who wanted to see it. Two days later he increased the price to 50 cents. People came by the wagonload.
Archaeological scholars pronounced the giant a fake, and some geologists even noticed that there was no good reason to try to dig a well in the exact spot the giant had been found. Yale paleontologist Othniel C. Marsh termed it “a most decided humbug”. Some theologians and preachers, however, defended its authenticity.
Eventually, Hull sold his part-interest for $23,000 (equivalent to $446,000 in 2017) to a syndicate of five men headed by David Hannum. They moved it to Syracuse, New York, for exhibition. The giant drew such crowds that showman P. T. Barnum offered $50,000 for the giant. When the syndicate refused, he hired a man to model the giant’s shape covertly in wax and create a plaster replica. He displayed his giant in New York, claiming that his was the real giant, and the Cardiff Giant was a fake.
As the newspapers reported Barnum’s version of the story, David Hannum was quoted as saying, “There’s a sucker born every minute” in reference to spectators paying to see Barnum’s giant. Since then, the quotation has often been misattributed to Barnum himself.
Hannum sued Barnum for calling his giant a fake, but the judge told him to get his giant to swear on his own genuineness in court if he wanted a favorable injunction.
On December 10, 1869, Hull confessed everything to the press, and on February 2, 1870 both giants were revealed as fakes in court; the judge also ruled that Barnum could not be sued for terming a fake giant a fake.
Source – Wikipedia
Moon Landing Fake????
July 20, 1969. On that historic day, a reported audience of half billion —the largest at the time — tuned in to watch Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong land on the moon and deliver his famous line, “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” Later on, Armstrong insisted that he said, “one small step for a man.” Intense analyzation of the audio recordings since has resulted in mixed reviews.
If only the inclusion of the word “a” was the largest debate surrounding the 1969 moon landing. The biggest controversy, however, doesn’t have to do with what Armstrong said or didn’t say when he landed on the moon. The real controversy is whether he landed on the moon at all. The fake moon landing conspiracy has been around since the 1970s and has garnered public attention ever since.
Was the moon landing faked? A seemingly absurd question, books and articles, and films created by theorists who believe in the moon landing hoax helped not only give legs to a far-fetched theory, but also give it sustaining durability.
In 1999 a Gallup poll revealed that 6% of Americans doubted that the moon landing was real, while 5% said they were undecided on the issue. While it may not sound like a huge number, 6% still translates into millions of people. That’s millions of people who potentially believe the entire moon landing was fake.
There isn’t a single cohesive story or origin when it comes to the “moon landing faked” conspiracy because it is one with many versions. Though some less extreme theorists believe that it did happen, but not in the way it was relayed to the public, many others assert that NASA never went to the moon at all.
Like any good conspiracy, there needs to be a motive. In this case, the largest motive for the faked moon landing was the mounting tension between the United States and the USSR at the time. The Cold War was going strong and the Soviet’s successful launch of Sputnik, the first Earth satellite, set off the much-hyped Space Race.
The competition for spaceflight capability was symbolic of a greater, general technological supremacy. Landing on the moon, a risky and pricey endeavor, was seen as the ultimate accomplishment. In a speech JFK gave on the moon mission, he emphasized that the U.S. chose to go to the moon because it was hard, not despite it.
So where was the moon landing faked? One theory proposes an elaborate movie set in Hollywood. Another suggests Area 51 was the location used to fake the moon landing.
Wherever the “staging” took place, a universal idea among theorists is that the only footage comes directly from NASA in the form of images and what people saw on their television sets. And since there is no independent verification that the moon landing happened, under the “trust no government agency” philosophy, there is no proof that this event took place.
Key findings that conspiracy theorists site in order to prove the moon landing was a hoax include:
Buzz Aldrin plants the American flag on the moon… and it waves. The waving flag indicates wind presence. There’s no wind on the moon.
Images of the landing contain odd reflections of light in the corner of photos and off of the astronaut’s helmet visor. There are also shadows pointing in different directions, indicating several light sources. These discrepancies can only be explained by studio lights on a production set.
Stars are one of the first things that come to mind when thinking about space. However, in the photographs of the moon landing, no stars can be seen.
There have been many skeptics throughout the years with wide-ranging claims. An Australian Woman saw a coke bottle briefly roll across the bottom of the screen in the original footage. A 2001 Fox TV documentary titled Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon? by one of the initiators of the moon landing hoax, Bill Kaysing, pointed out inconsistencies between the images and the TV footage. An 81-year-old former Hollywood cameraman said in 2016 that the moon landing was filmed in North London and that he was the one holding the camera.
The many contentions brought up by hoax enthusiasts have been widely debunked and refuted over the years. Scientists from the Argonne National Laboratory put up a detailed rebuttal of the major claims made about the moon landing faked conspiracy on the lab’s website.
So far, no member of the U.S government or NASA official involved in the moon landing has said that the mission was a hoax. Which means, if the theories really are true, the level of secrecy in which those involved have maintained is incredibly impressive. The urge to spill that kind of secret could keep a person up at night
Source – allthatsinteresting.com